The American, who was eliminated from Friday's super-combined in the Swiss resort after skidding out in the slalom leg, won in one minute and 2.71 seconds on a shortened course because of strong winds at the top.
Slovenia's Tina Maze, Vonn's arch-rival for the overall title, was second, missing her first victory in the discipline by 0.37 seconds. Vonn's compatriot Julia Mancuso was third, 1.01 behind.
It was Vonn's 57th World Cup top spot and her fourth victory this season.
"It's crazy how fast the figure is going up. Should my career stop now, I would have achieved all my dreams," Vonn, who is five short of Anne-Marie Moser Proell's record of 62 World Cup victories," told reporters.
"Yesterday, I didn't ski the way I wanted. I didn't do the job. I could have skied more aggressive today, still it's good to be back on top," she added.
"Of course I could have been beaten today. Behind me, Tina Maze is so strong and she pushes harder than ever. It's good to have someone to fight against, it's not always the case and it takes you to your limits.
"I'm trying even harder this season because so many girls can beat me. I'm not as dominant," Vonn said.
Maze leads the overall World Cup standings on 577 points ahead of Germany's Maria Hoefl-Riesch who has 414.
Vonn, who has won all four speed events held this season, is back in third on 410 points.
Maze, who was quickest in the Super-G leg of Friday's super-combined event, is bidding to become only the sixth woman to have won in all five World Cup specialities.
"I'm disappointed because I was a little bit unlucky with the wind," she said.
"I can't complain about finishing second but it's a pity. I love the Super-G and I saw yesterday that I was doing very well.
"I will do my utmost for the next one to be the right one. Maybe it will be possible in Val d'Isere next week. I keep looking ahead," added the Slovenian.