Abitova, 30, who won gold at the 2006 European championships in Gothenburg, was banned for an "abnormal haemoglobin profile in her biological passport", the Russian athletics federation said.
The Russian also won silver over the same distance at the 2010 European championships in Barcelona and finished second at the London marathon that year.
She came in fourth in the 10,000 metres at the 2008 Beijing Olympics but failed to make the Russian Olympic team this year.
The VFLA has annulled Abitova's results from October 10, 2009 while her suspension began on October 11, 2012.
In July, the VFLA handed two-year bans to three other leading female Russian long-distance runners, including 2010 European marathon champion Nailya Yulamanova.