Shlyakhova, who won the Russian cross country championship in 2011, tested positive for the anabolic steroid ostarine at the national cross country championships this year.
"The athlete has been disqualified for two years starting from April 16, 2013," the Russian athletics federation stated.
Shlyakova's positive test is the latest in a series of doping offences by leading Russian athletes.
Last month, Olympic discus silver medallist Darya Pishchalnikova was banned for 10 years after failing a drugs test for the second time while European 800 metres champion Yelena Arzhakova was banned for two years for showing an "abnormal haemoglobin profile in her biological passport".
Former world and Olympic champions Svetlana Krivelyova and Olga Kuzenkova were banned for two years each last month for failing drugs tests after their samples were re-examined.
VFLA head Valentin Balakhnichyov said his country, which will host the world athletics championships in Moscow in August, had been making big efforts to weed out drugs cheats.
"We do more drugs tests than any other country in the world," Balakhnichyov told Reuters in an interview last month.
"Some nations only do 500 tests a year. We did 3,500 tests last year alone and this year we plan to do over 4,000 tests in and out of competition. So don't be surprised if you hear about a few more suspensions coming our way."