The 26-year-old shot clear in both the prone and the standing in the Czech Republic for a winning time of 21:02.1minutes and winning margin over second-placed Tora Berger of 6.4 seconds.
Olena Zubrilova is the only other Ukrainian biathlete to achieve similar success to Pidhrushna, who won triple gold at last year’s Europeans, having won four world titles between 1999 and 2002.
Zubrilova won three in 1999 alone however none of her victories came in the sprint with Pidhrushna ending a run of six straight wins for Germany in Nove Mesto.
Silver for Berger takes her tally so far in the Czech Republic to two having won the mixed team relay with Norway on Friday while there was another Ukrainian on the podium in Vita Semerenko in third.
Pidhrushna took a while to get going in Nove Mesto and, despite shooting clear in her first trip to the range, was outside the podium positions in fifth at the 3.5km mark.
Olga Zaitseva was leading by 7.7 over Berger but it was at the second shoot that Pidhrushna was to effectively take a lead that she would not relinquish for her maiden world title.
Had Berger done the same she could have been in better contention for her sixth World Championship title but as it was she missed a target and had to make do with second.
A missed target in the second shoot also cost Zaitseva as she fell to fourth with Semerenko, who shot clear, taking bronze 22.8 behind her teammate Pidhrushna in total.