The Ospreys have announced that 28-year-old Bowe will undergo surgery in Ireland for the removal of a haematoma that has pushed into his kidney and caused raised blood pressure.
Bowe, who will rejoin Ulster next term after four years playing in Wales, has been ruled out for the remainder of this season, and the Ospreys say he could face four months sidelined.
The 49 times-capped wing scored five tries during Ireland's recent RBS 6 Nations campaign, including doubles against Italy and France, and he would be a key part of coach Declan Kidney's plans for a three-Test New Zealand trip in June.
"Having discovered he was suffering from high blood pressure earlier this year, he has been put through a number of medical tests to identify the cause of the problem," the Ospreys said in a statement.
"These tests have shown that he has, in the past, suffered a haematoma that is pushing into his left kidney, with further tests indicating that this is the reason for the raised blood pressure.
"After considerable consultation with specialists in both Ireland and Wales, Tommy has opted to go down the route of surgical removal of the haematoma in an effort to solve the problem.
"He is being operated on in Ireland today, before returning to Wales post-op to convalesce.
"Because of the surgery, he will not be able to play any further part for the Ospreys this season, ahead of his return to Ulster for next season.
"Recovery time post-operation is unclear, but he could be sidelined for up to four months."