Brook, in front of his home crowd in Sheffield, extended his spotless record to 31-0 with a consummate performance against the Ukrainian fighter.
The victory came moments after Brook's worst moment of the fight as Senchenko - who pummelled Ricky Hatton into a retirement last November - rocked the 27-year-old in the fourth round.
But the British star immediately got back into the fight and finished off his opponent, earning the right to a world title shot next year.
"I believe I've made a statement here," Brook said. "When I hurt him I knew I could take my time.
"I nearly got lackadaisical and I got caught myself, but I thought 'I'm going to get you back for that'.
"I wasn't really hurt, it was just a bit of a buzz. I'm glad to have got revenge for Ricky."
Brook floored his opponent in the third round after dominating the opening exchanges and looked likely to finish off Senchenko early on.
Admitting complacency after the match, Brook stepped off and gifted the Ukrainian a foothold in the contest – dropping his guard as Senchenko shook the home-favourite midway through the fourth round.
Brook stood strong, however, shaking off the punch before unleashing a flurry of jabs that put Senchenko down for a final time. The 36-year-old beat the count but the referee deemed the contest over, waving off the fight and awarding Brook the victory.
Earlier on the same fight card, Olympic Champion Anthony Joshua stopped Paul Butlin in the second round to extend his professional boxing record to 2-0.
The fight was hardly a contest with Joshua dominating from the off. Butlin scraped his way through the opening round but was unable to compete against Joshua's speed and strength.
Butlin's corner eventually threw in the towel after their man had returned to his feet after a big knockdown that had left him looking shaky thereafter.
Brian Rose earned himself a world title shot with a superb points victory over Argentina's Javier Maciel.
Maciel split his Blackpool-born opponent's nose early on as he appeared to have the better of the early rounds. The two entered a number of gruelling encounters inside the ring throughout the duration - Rose somehow withstanding a gruesome combination from Maciel in the eighth.
The home-favourite appeared to have done enough to at least earn a draw after an impressive final few rounds, but was awarded the split decision. The judges' scorecards read: 117-111, 113-115, 116-113 - though Spanish judge Fernando Laguna's card was greeted with a number of boos inside the Motorpoint Arena.
The vacant WBO light-middleweight belt is to be contested by Demetrius Andrade and Vanes Martirosyan in November.