The 21-year-old youth academy graduate, who has been used as cover during the absences through injury of Carles Puyol and Gerard Pique, will be out for between 15 and 20 days, Barca said in a statement on their website.
Puyol and Pique played together in central defence for only the third time this season in Saturday's 3-1 La Liga win at home to Real Zaragoza.
Pique returned recently from a foot injury, while Puyol was back after 45 days out with a dislocated elbow.
The hosts meanwhile face a goalkeeping dilemma with three stoppers ruled out.
Spartak's third-choice Artem Rebrov has joined top two keepers Andriy Dykan and Sergei Pesyakov on the sidelines after injuring his shoulder in Saturday's 1-1 draw at Nizhny Novgorod.
"Rebrov sustained practically the same injury that Dykan had. Rebrov will miss at least the next few games," the Russian club said on their website on Sunday.
First-choice Dykan has not played since injuring his shoulder in a league match on Sept. 29 while his deputy Pesyakov has been out for a month with a foot fracture.
Spartak, who are bottom of Group G with three points from four games and have only a slim chance of reaching the knockout round, have not said who will be in goal to face the Spaniards.
In addition, striker Artem Dzyuba will miss at least a week with a hamstring injury, Spartak said.
Unai Emery's team already have several key players out with injury, including leading striker Welliton, captain Sergei Parshivlyuk, Russia international Diniyar Bilyaletdinov, Brazil midfielder Romulo and Ireland winger Aiden McGeady. Argentine defender Nicolas Pareja is suspended for Tuesday's match.
Barca, seeking a third European crown in five years, top the group on nine points from four of six matches and will go through to the last 16 with a draw in Moscow.