It is too early to tell whether Bresnan will be fit to make the trip to Australia for the return Ashes series this winter, but what is certain is that the Yorkshireman will miss the Oval Test which begins next Wednesday, as well as the Twenty20 and one-day fixtures which follow.
An ECB statement read: "England and Yorkshire pace bowler Tim Bresnan has been ruled out of the remainder of the international season with a stress fracture in his lower back.
"Bresnan will begin a recovery and rehabilitation programme and a date for his return to cricket will be determined in due course."
Bresnan tweeted his disappointment at being sidelined for the Test series finale, saying: "Thanks for all the messages guys. Really gutted to be missing the last test! Wishing the boys well for the Oval."
Bresnan's blow offers Surrey paceman Tremlett an opportunity to stake his claim for a place on this winter's return Ashes tour.
Tremlett, who will turn 32 on September 2, has played in 11 Tests for England, most recently against Pakistan in Dubai in January 2012, in a career punctuated by injury.
If selected, he has big shoes to fill.
Bresnan has played in three of the four Ashes Tests to date this summer after replacing Steven Finn at Lord's, taking 10 wickets.
The 28-year-old was a key figure as England beat Australia by 74 runs to win the Ashes for a third successive occasion at Chester-le-Street on Monday.
Bresnan's most telling contribution came at the Riverside.
Coming in as nightwatchman, Bresnan plundered 45 in England's second innings total of 330.
He then claimed two wickets for 36 runs as Australia chased victory, with both scalps crucial to England's success. He removed opener David Warner for 71 and all-rounder Shane Watson for two as Stuart Broad claimed six victims at the other end in a memorable four-day triumph.
As well as missing the remaining contests with Australia, he will be absent for the one-day international with Ireland on September 3.
Finn is another option to return, but he was out of sorts in the opening Test of the summer at Trent Bridge.