National selector Geoff Miller has announced a 15-man Test squad for the three-match series, as well as making alterations to the previously announced limited-overs party.
Bresnan, who has been struggling with his right elbow for some time and underwent an operation at the end of 2011, has been replaced in all three formats by Warwickshire's Chris Woakes, who is uncapped at Test level.
Bresnan will be assessed by specialists before any decision is made on his long-term availability, but Miller is hopeful that the Yorkshireman will be back to full fitness in time for a summer programme that sees England host both the Ashes and the Champions Trophy. Kieswetter, meanwhile, looks set for a lengthy spell in the wildnerness.
Until Wednesday's match in Mohali, the Somerset man had played each of England's last 34 one-day internationals, but county colleague Jos Buttler and the returning Jonny Bairstow are both ahead in the pecking order.
Kieswetter was named in the original ODI squad for New Zealand but has been stood down having been low on confidence and runs in India. England also added two players to the 50-over squad, with Joe Root and the uncapped James Harris joining the group.
Root had initially been assigned the captaincy of the second string England Lions for their tour of Australia but his performances across the formats in India have made an irresistible case for inclusion among the seniors.
Explaining the decision to send Bresnan for futher medical advice despite the seamer playing all four games of the current series, Miller said: "Tim had got a little issue with his elbow, which he has had for a while
"He's had a problem and he felt that playing through it could alleviate that problem, but that hasn't been the case. He needs it looked at because it's not right at the moment. This was an opportunity for him to go back and get it sorted.
"He'll have a look with the specialists and see what's needed. It's not necessarily an operation at this stage and we feel he'll be absolutely fine; our medical staff say he'll be fine for the summer."