Broad sat out Nottinghamshire's 10-wicket loss to Middlesex in their opening match but the England paceman was cleared by the England and Wales Cricket Board to feature in this round of fixtures and he was the stand-out bowler on the first morning in Derby.
He took three for 33 off 12 overs, sending back Wayne Madsen (nine), Dan Redfern (four) and Billy Godleman (31) as Notts' local rivals Derbyshire struggled in their first home championship match since winning promotion back to the top flight.
Broad's international team-mate Matt Prior was included in Sussex's line-up against Surrey, for whom Graeme Smith's disappointing start to the season continued as the new captain fell for just three at the Oval.
The South Africa Test skipper, who was dismissed for two on his Surrey debut in last week's draw against Somerset, nibbled at a James Anyon delivery and edged through to Ben Brown, who kept the gloves ahead of Prior.
That left Surrey five for one after winning the toss but Rory Burns, a centurion against Somerset, and Gary Wilson led a recovery as the hosts reached 58 for one at the interval.
In the other Division One game, Durham were also fighting back against Yorkshire after being reduced to eight for two at Chester-le-Street, Will Smith and Dale Benkenstein both 30 not out in a lunch score of 72 for two.