Yorkshire seam bowler Iain Wardlaw, Northamptonshire wicket-keeper David Murphy, Sussex batsman Matt Machan and Leicestershire's Ron Taylor will also travel to Dubai on Tuesday ahead of next month's matches in all three formats of the game.
All five of the newcomers have Scottish parents and Murphy, Machan and Taylor all impressed during the recent non-cap tour of South Africa.
Carter, 38, left Warwickshire last year and vowed to help Scotland reach the World Cup, while 27-year-old Wardlaw is contracted to Yorkshire for the next two seasons.
Following three warm-up matches against Emirates Cricket Board Blues in late February, Scotland will face Afghanistan in two twenty20 fixtures, two Pepsi World Cricket League Championship fixtures and a four-day Intercontinental Cup tie.
Scotland's chairman of selectors, Iain Kennedy, said: "This has been the most challenging and exciting selection of recent times as it is very rare that you would get such an influx of talented individuals to pick from.
"Hopefully our new players will gel quickly with our current squad and we get the positive results we are all hoping for against Afghanistan."
Scotland are in second place behind Ireland in both the World Cricket League and the Intercontinental Cup tables, but just two points ahead of Afghanistan in the latter.
A top-two finish in the World Cricket League will ensure qualification for the World Cup in 2015.
Scotland squad: R Berrington, N Carter, K Coetzer, J Davey, G Drummond (captain), G Goudie, M Haq, M Iqbal, M Machan, C MacLeod, D Murphy, P Mommsen, S Sharif, R Taylor, I Wardlaw.