Tremlett has not played a Test since January 2012 against Pakistan in Dubai due to long-standing problems with his back, and his last first-class appearance came in July against Lancashire.
Yet his inclusion - Tremlett is the only player named not to have featured in an England squad for the past 12 months - would suggest he still has an international future, provided he can prove his fitness.
The 31-year-old played a key role in England's 2010-11 Ashes success Down Under.
England Cricket Board national selector Geoff Miller said: "The players included in this squad reflect the progress they have made with senior England teams and the England Lions over the last 12 months.
"All of the players named in the EPS squad have been involved with one or more of the England squads during the winter, with the exception of Chris Tremlett who has been going through a rehabilitation process."
Taylor's immediate international future appears bleak despite playing two Tests against South Africa last summer.
The Nottinghamshire man was thought to have acquitted himself well with a gritty debut innings of 34 off 104 balls, which allowed Kevin Pietersen to famously take the attack to the Proteas bowlers in the second Test at Headingley.
He did not feature in India or New Zealand and captained England Lions in their disastrous one-day international campaign against Australia A, who won the five-match series 4-0 - with the last encounter abandoned due to rain.
England Performance Squad 2013: A Cook (Test and one-day captain), S Broad (Twenty20 captain), J Anderson, J Bairstow, I Bell, R Bopara, T Bresnan, D Briggs, J Buttler, N Compton, J Dernbach, S Finn, A Hales, J Harris, C Kieswetter, M Lumb, S Meaker, E Morgan, G Onions, M Panesar, S Patel, K Pietersen, M Prior, J Root, G Swann, J Tredwell, C Tremlett, J Trott, C Woakes, L Wright.