The South African was a big hit at Headingley in the competition last season, scoring 390 runs, including 72 in the final against Hampshire, and the Vikings were keen for him to return.
But after this month's Champions trophy, the Proteas travel to Sri Lanka for five one-day internationals and three Twenty20 games beginning on July 20 and the 24-year-old has decided not to play county cricket.
"We are a little bit disappointed that David's not going to join us but we fully understand the reasoning behind the decision," said Vikings coach Jason Gillespie.
"He's been away from home for about three months when you include his commitments with South Africa and the Indian Premier League.
"We initially thought that we would have him for the two-week window before his country's tour to Sri Lanka but the feeling now is that he needs a break before that tough trip.
"We had a good chat with Dave. He loves the club and we're in contact with him every week, even through the off-season, and he was completely honest with me. He said he very much wanted to come back but he really needed a break.
"Martyn Moxon and I had a good long chat about it and we agreed that if the lad is feeling like that, we'd just make the call and tell him that's okay.
"He's a guy we highly respect and value, so the hope remains that we can get him next year or the year after. We'd love him to be part of Yorkshire's future."