The flamboyant Frenchman saw off his Brazilian opponent 6-3 7-6(3) to set up a clash with Ukrainian Sergiy Stakhovsky, who sent 15th seed Pablo Andujar of Spain packing 6-2 6-3.
Tsonga progressed on a good day for the top seeds, with numbers two, three and four also going through.
Second seed Tomas Berdych downed Alex Bogomolov Jr 6-3 7-5, third seed John Isner delighted his home crowd with a come-from-behind 4-6 6-3 7-5 win over Martin Klizan and fourth seed Alexandr Dolgopolov beat Yen-Hsun Lu of Chinese Taipei 6-1 6-3.
Berdych next meets Jarkko Nieminen, who beat Benjamin Becker 6-3 6-3, while Isner will play Juergen Melzer, a 6-2 2-6 7-6(10) winner over qualifier Michael McClune.
Next up for Dolgopolov will be David Nalbandian, after the Argentine secured his place in the third round with a 6-2 6-4 victory over Robin Haase.
Ninth seed Feliciano Lopez saved eight of nine break points as he battled through a tough encounter with Donald Young of the USA.
The Spaniard won 6-2 6-3 in 72 minutes, and will now play another American, Sam Querrey, who eased past Santiago Giraldo of Colombia 6-3 6-2.
Steve Darcis booked a date with Andy Roddick in the third round the Belgian's 6-4 7-6(2) win over 11th seed Denis Istomin, while another seed - number eight - Julien Benneteau crashed out 2-6 7-5 6-3 to Lukasz Kubot.
Completing the third round line-up are Marcel Granollers and Ernests Gulbis, with the pair set to meet after respective victories over Ryan Harrison and 12th seed Kevin Anderson.