Bryson was offered a new deal at the end of last season and the Scot put open to paper at the Rams' Moor Farm training ground on Tuesday morning.
The 26-year-old, who joined Derby from SPL side Kilmarnock in the summer of 2011, said: "I'm absolutely delighted to get the deal signed.
"As soon as I knew Derby wanted to offer me a new contract I was really happy and I just wanted to stay - I love playing for this club.
"Ever since I signed for the club I have really enjoyed my time here and I have really enjoyed playing here. It has been an excellent two years for me here and hopefully the next three can be even better."
Bryson was named the club's player of the year in his first season at Pride Park and he was also one of Nigel Clough's most consistent performers last season despite a niggling groin injury.