The Celtic midfielder, 29, earned 12 caps for Scotland, scoring two goals, but said he wanted to dedicate more time to his young family and his club football with Scottish Premier League champions Celtic.
"I have enjoyed my time immensely with the Scotland team and it was a very proud moment every time I pulled on the Scotland shirt," Commons said on the official Celtic website. "I will always, of course, be a Scotland supporter."
He added: "I have thought about this decision for some time. At this stage of my career I just want to give Celtic my 100 per cent commitment and ensure I can prolong my club career as long as possible.
"I also want to give my young family more attention, something I have not been able to do for some time."