Having enjoyed a 16-match spell with Town between mid-October and early January, Henderson returned to Portman Road on deadline day of the winter transfer window for a second time this term which was due to last until the end of the season.
However, the Hammers have opted to activate a 24-hour recall clause, ending Henderson's stay in Suffolk having started eight of nine games since his return.
Town boss Mick McCarthy must now decide whether to return to the loan market for reinforcements or stick with back-up keeper Scott Loach.
Meanwhile, with relegation-threatened Town hoping to secure their Championship status, Ipswich owner Marcus Evans has promised to back McCarthy in the summer transfer market in a bid to launch an assault on promotion.
McCarthy took over on November 1 with Town bottom of the table on a 12-match winless run but he has turned the club's fortunes around and they currently sit 19th, four points clear of the drop zone.
"Mick McCarthy's performance since taking over as manager has been fantastic," Evans told the club's official website.
"Having taken over a team adrift at the bottom of the league, he has moulded a tough-to-beat and highly competitive team and if his results are multiplied over the course of the season, we are pretty close to play-off form.
"If next year is to be our year, we need everyone behind the team and for our fans to help make Portman Road a fortress.
"I am as committed as ever to getting the club promoted and Mick will be fully supported in his plans to develop the squad over the summer. We have the manager who can take us up and we need your support to get us there."