Mirko Vucinic came off the bench to save a point for Juve with an easy tap-in just after the hour after Victor Ibarbo had given the visitors a shock 12th-minute lead with a wonderful individual goal.
Antonio Conte's leaders have 87 points with one game to go while Cagliari are 11th on 44 points.
Juve achieved their record tally of 91 points in the 2005-06 season. They won the league that year but were stripped of the title and relegated to Serie B following a match-fixing affair that ripped Italian football apart.
Ibarbo's goal was the highlight of an entertaining match, the Colombia striker weaving between Claudio Marchisio and a seemingly disinterested Andrea Barzagli before squeezing the ball under goalkeeper Marco Storari.
It gave the Sardinians a positive end to the week after club president Massimo Cellino was handed a four-month ban for his part in the Is Arenas controversy.
Mid-table Catania host relegated Pescara in Saturday's late game (1845 GMT).