Steven Naismith's goal inflicted a first defeat on Jose Mourinho since he returned as Blues boss.
"It is difficult to describe because it wasn't the perfect performance from our point of view but when you show that character and all the attributes to be a winning side I thought we were a 10 (out of 10) in that respect," said Martinez.
"I thought the crowd understood we are still adapting and we are trying to play in a different manner and it can be difficult when you play a side like Chelsea.
"We gave two or three (early) chances probably from us not keeping the ball well enough but the way we reacted, took responsibility and defended was immense.
"It is one of those victories which will give us a lot to get the fans to understand it is going to take a bit of time to be as good as we can be but we can still win games in the process.
"As a manager you couldn't be prouder. It gives you a great platform to carry on working and get better.