Payne missed the victory over Watford and Tuesday night's goalless draw with Brighton with the ankle injury that forced him out of the action during the 2-2 draw at Huddersfield 13 days ago.
The midfielder, on loan from Gillingham, has resumed training and should travel north with the Posh squad.
However, defenders Mark Little and Michael Bostwick will remain on the sidelines.
Right wing-back Little may not play again this season after suffering a hamstring injury against Watford last weekend.
Bostwick, who is a midfielder by trade but has been playing at centre-back, remains unavailable and his campaign could also be over after he suffered a setback last week in his recovery from a hamstring injury.
Peterborough are the Championship's form team having extended their unbeaten run to a club record 10 matches at this level against Brighton.