Partizan, who are aiming for a record sixth successive league title, have 50 points from 20 matches, nine more than city rivals Red Star who gave their new coach Ricardo Sa Pinto a winning start with a 2-0 home defeat of Radnicki Kragujevac on Saturday.
Third-placed Vojvodina Novi Sad also have 41 points after a 1-0 win at fourth-placed Jagodina, who are a further eight points adrift.
Teenage striker Aleksandar Mitrovic gave Partizan the lead in torrential rain midway through the first half before the league's top scorer Lazar Veselinovic headed his 11th goal of the season to draw level.
Partizan missed several chances in the second half and could have been punished in injury time, when their international keeper Vladimir Stojkovic denied Veselinovic with a fine save.
"We were very excited before this match and overjoyed to have held our own against the best team in the country on a difficult pitch," Hajduk coach Milan Milanovic told Serbia's Arenasport television.
His counterpart Vladimir Vermezovic said: "It was impossible to play better football under the circumstances and we have to be content with a point because we could have lost it in the end."