The Scottish Football Association confirmed that Pawlett had been issued with a notice of complaint. The 22-year-old faces a two-match ban if he accepts the charge or loses a potential challenge to the decision.
Pawlett has until Thursday to respond to SFA compliance officer Vincent Lunny. If he denies the charge, he will face a judicial panel hearing on May 16.
Dundee manager John Brown had accused Pawlett of diving to earn the late spot-kick that Niall McGinn converted to earn the Dons a 1-1 draw and consign the Dens Park club to the First Division.
The Aberdeen player fell emphatically after knocking the ball past former Scotland Under-21 team-mate Lewis Toshney, who appeared to pull out of any challenge.
Brown said: "It was a blatant dive. He was diving with two feet before he has even come near the player."
However, Dons boss Derek McInnes defended his player in the immediate aftermath of the game.
McInnes said: "For me, the big boy Toshney came in and tried to slow down at the last minute but was a bit hasty in his challenge and, for me, he has caught Peter. There is definite contact and it is a penalty kick and I think it is a right decision."
Pawlett has been banned for simulation before - he received a two-match suspension after throwing himself to the ground to win a penalty against Hibernian in December 2011.
He was also booked for diving twice in a month earlier this year, once against Dundee while on loan at St Johnstone, and also against Hibernian for the Dons.