Despite covers being on the Roots Hall pitch all week, sub-zero temperatures have left the playing surface in an unplayable condition.
Shrimpers chief executive Steve Kavanagh told his club's official website: "It's disappointing because we would have liked to have got the game on.
"Unfortunately the weather has meant the pitch has become frozen and it was deemed dangerous to play on.
"Of course we also had to take into consideration the long journey that Plymouth Argyle would have to make to get here.
"The weather is set to continue in the same vein today and on Saturday so the decision had to be made to postpone the game."
A re-arranged date for the fixture will be announced in due course.