French midfielder Pogba struck in the 76th minute of a scrappy affair, finishing well after Fabio Quagliarella's brilliant looping shot rebounded to him off the bar.
Antonio Conte's champions had to thank their former striker Amauri for missing from close range eight minutes after the break, when he inexplicably chose to backheel Jonathan Biabiany's cross instead of shooting normally.
Napoli joined Juve on 28 points and leapfrogged them into second place on goal difference thanks to Jose Callejon and Marek Hamsik, who both scored their sixth goals of the season in the first half with stunning left foot strikes.
Catania remain second bottom on six points despite Lucas Castro's fine 25th minute goal for the Sicilian side.
Roma visit Torino on Sunday.