The 36-year-old midfielder announced his retirement on Sunday after the 3-1 defeat at Twente Enschede in which he was sent off 19 minutes before time for a second bookable offence.
"I doubted for a while about my future but this season, it became tougher to stay fit after the Achilles tendon injury I sustained last season," he told reporters, adding that he wanted to retire on his own terms.
Van Bommel started his career at Fortuna Sittard before spending time at PSV, Barcelona, Bayern Munich and AC Milan, winning domestic titles at each club.
His single season with Barcelona in 2005-06 also included winning the Champions League.
Van Bommel won 79 caps for the Dutch national team, scoring 10 goals, and played in the 2010 World Cup final.