The defender, 21, assumes the role after being given the green light to remain at the administration-hit club.
The Scottish Professional Football League last week ruled that Wilson's registration can continue following his loan spell from Liverpool and that his permanent move to the Edinburgh outfit would not be affected by a transfer embargo currently in place.
According to boss Gary Locke, the former Rangers defender has the leadership qualities required to wear the skipper's armband.
He told Hearts News: "It was a tough decision as the more experienced players have all made huge sacrifices over the summer and showed me the type of commitment I want here.
"I feel Danny is the right man for the job. He has a lot of experience for someone so young, is a good talker and is a quiet lad off the pitch as well which is something you're looking for in your captain.
"It is a big responsibility for him but he has all the right credentials as far as I am concerned.
"He is a winner, commands respect in the dressing room, which is a big plus, and knows what the club is all about.
"He has made the same sacrifices as Jamie Hamill, Ryan Stevenson and Jamie Macdonald and as I said, I do feel he is the right man for the job.
"Hopefully he can be the leader of a successful team this season."