It was the only decisive game of six qualifiers on Sunday as the group phase of the African preliminaries came to a close, delivering an eclectic mix of perennial heavyweight contenders and new pretenders to compete in the play-off matches over the next two months.
Cameroon join Algeria, Burkina Faso, the Cape Verde Islands, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, the Ivory Coast, Nigeria and Senegal in next week's draw for the play-offs, set for October and November.
The five ties, to be played over two legs, will determine which African countries go to Brazil. Cameroon are on course to extend their African record number of World Cup finals appearances to seven after finishing top of Group I.
Chedjou scored three minutes before halftime with a header from Samuel Eto'o's corner to ensure Cameroon finished four points ahead of Libya who had needed to win to go top of the table.
Togo were again without talismanic striker Emmanuel Adebayor, who is still at loggerheads with coach Didier Six, but won their first game of the campaign with a last-gasp goal from substitute Backer Aloenouvo as they beat the Democratic Republic of Congo 2-1 in Lome.
Rwanda, Sudan and Zimbabwe all finished bottom of their respective groups without a victory in six matches after failing again on Sunday.
Lesotho caused a minor upset by coming from two goals down to beat Sudan 3-2 in Khartoum for their first ever away win in World Cup qualification, stretching back to 1972.
Sudan finished with just two points in Group D while Lesotho avoided bottom spot by moving up to five.
Rwanda were last in Group H with two points after losing 2-0 away in Benin.
Zimbabwe had a chance to avoid the wooden spoon in Group G but were held to a 1-1 draw at home by neighbours Mozambique.