McLaren had one of its strongest races of the season to get both cars into the top eight.
Button lost fifth to Lewis Hamilton's Mercedes on the final lap and blamed the Caterham drivers for not moving over quickly enough while being lapped in the closing stages.
"They destroyed our race in terms of fighting for fifth place," Button said. "They're obviously racing for position, but when you get blue flags you have to move over.
"It was disappointing and I've spoken to them both and they didn't really think they did anything wrong.
"Obviously we all have our different views, but when you're fighting for position and you're lapping someone you expect the backmarkers to move over."
Button and team-mate Sergio Perez both hailed the improvement McLaren made since last weekend's British Grand Prix at Silverstone.
"I think we've had a good weekend and we've got everything we could out of the car," Button said. "We haven't put a foot wrong this weekend.
"I think today was a great improvement over last weekend in Silverstone," added Perez, who ran a different strategy to Button and finished eighth.
"I had to go to the end of the race after the safety car on one set of tyres and I think I did the maximum I could do with the car.
"The car today was performing much better and the pace today was very strong. So in that respect we can be very happy."