The Marussia driver's gearbox was replaced after qualifying, which contravenes Article 28.6a of the sporting regulations.
This has been referred to the stewards and will certainly lead to him being hit with a five-place grid penalty, which will cost him 20th place on the grid.
Formula 1 regulations force drivers to use gearboxes for five consecutive events, but Chilton's gearbox was in only its first weekend.
Team-mate Jules Bianchi has also been forced to change his Cosworth engine.
This does not carry any penalty, as each driver is allowed to use a pool of eight engines for the season.
However, because the powerplant was removed at this point of the weekend, the team is only allowed to use it in practice sessions in the future.
The team has opted to install one of the engines it has used previously this year, meaning that he will not fresh with a brand new one.