Gonzalez will drive in a number of Friday practice sessions at grands prix as part of his deal.
"Working closely with the race drivers and engineers at every stage of the race weekend is a fantastic opportunity for me to learn outside of the car and I hope that I can make a significant contribution to the team's progress," said the Venezuelan.
"I would like to thank the team for their trust in me and this fantastic opportunity."
The 26-year-old has previous F1 test experience with Caterham and Force India. He has spent the last three years in GP2, but 21st in the championship in his rookie season with Arden is the highest he has been in the points so far.
Team boss John Booth believes Gonzalez will be ready to deputise for race drivers Jules Bianchi and Max Chilton if required.
"We take encouragement from the fact that he has all the right experience to be able to fulfil the role of reserve driver in the event that he is required to step into a seat," said Booth.
"To further prepare him we look forward to seeing him take part in a number of FP1 sessions throughout the season, when we will also have the opportunity to evaluate his performances for the future."