The 41-year-old former Ferrari driver, who has started more races than anyone in Formula One and won 11 grands prix, reluctantly left the sport at the end of 2011 when Williams replaced him with compatriot Bruno Senna.
He has since raced in IndyCar and Brazilian stock cars.
Sauber have yet to confirm their drivers for 2014, although they have said they want to bring in Russian teenager Sergey Sirotkin as part of a deal with new backers if he can obtain a super-licence.
"There are a couple of options out there," team principal Monisha Kaltenborn told reporters at the Korean Grand Prix when asked about Barrichello.
"We know what he has is experience. He would like to come back, so let's see," she added.
Asked about media reports in Brazil suggesting that Barrichello could even race for Sauber in this year's season-ender in place of Mexican rookie Esteban Gutierrez or Germany's Nico Hulkenberg, Kaltenborn was adamant.
"I don't see any possibility there. We have no reason to change our two drivers for that race," she said.