Jamieson recorded a time of two minutes and 8.20 seconds to lead the way heading into the medal round, with Bath ITC training partner Andrew Willis joining him as third fastest on 2:08.47 to smash his own personal best.
It was the second time that day Jamieson had defeated Kris Gilchrist's British best, swimming a 2:08.98 time in the morning preliminary heat.
Jamieson is already focusing on trying to achieve a medal in his first ever Games in the 200m breaststroke, and is delighted his good friend and training partner Andrew Willis is in there with him.
“Again, I’m really happy with the time and I’m really excited for tomorrow night,” said the 23-year-old, who now has the third fastest time in the world this year.
“We all dream of gold medals. I had to really go for it, but there are a few guns in the final too. Andrew has been on form as well and it’s good to have the both of us in the final.
“The crowd is amazing. Every time I come out here, I get goose bumps walking behind the block and it is really something special. It’s really helped me this week, I know that.”
Willis was delighted to make the final at his first Games and believes it’s all down to solid training – and a just a little bit of help from the crowd.
“That was unbelievable – the crowd really helped me out there,” said Willis, who qualified in third 2:08.47 mins.
“We just work on hitting the times we want to hit and it’s working. I knew that Michael is capable of great times and I’m delighted for him.
“In the final, knowing your mate is there is great. Tonight was crazy – I was getting goose bumps coming here – but it’s brilliant. It’s an awesome feeling.”
Japan's Kosuke Kitajima, meanwhile, will get one last chance to complete the elusive golden treble after booking his place in the final.
Kitajima won the breaststroke double at Athens in 2004 and Beijing four years later and is locked in a race with Michael Phelps to become the first male swimmer to win the same individual event at three Olympics.
When Phelps failed to win a medal in the 400 medley on Saturday, Kitajima got the opportunity to become the first but he missed the podium altogether in the 100 final.
Phelps seemed certain to reach the milestone in Tuesday's 200 butterfly final but suffered a shock defeat, opening the window for Kitajima although he faces a stiff challenge.
He finished fifth overall with a semi-final time of two minutes 09.03 seconds, almost a second behind Britain's Jamieson and Hungary's Daniel Gyurta, the world champion in 2009 and 2011, who was second.
"If I have a chance to win gold I'll try my very best to get it," Kitajima said.
"For the final I want to get my best record and start with good feelings."
1. Michael Jamieson (Britain) 2:08.20
2. Clark Burckle (US) 2:09.11
3. Ryo Tateishi (Japan) 2:09.13
4. Tales Cerdeira (Brazil) 2:09.77
5. Giedrius Titenis (Lithuania) 2:09.95
6. Christian Vom Lehn (Germany) 2:10.50
7. Glenn Snyders (New Zealand) 2:11.14
8. Laurent Carnol (Luxembourg) 2:11.17
1. Daniel Gyurta (Hungary) 2:08.32
2. Andrew Willis (Britain) 2:08.47
3. Scott Weltz (US) 2:08.99
4. Kosuke Kitajima (Japan) 2:09.03
5. Brenton Rickard (Australia) 2:09.31
6. Viatcheslav Sinkevich (Russia) 2:09.90
7. Marco Koch (Germany) 2:10.73
8. Scott Dickens (Canada) 2:11.71
Qualified for Next Round :
1. Michael Jamieson (Britain) 2 minutes 8.20 seconds
2. Daniel Gyurta (Hungary) 2:08.32
3. Andrew Willis (Britain) 2:08.47
4. Scott Weltz (US) 2:08.99
5. Kosuke Kitajima (Japan) 2:09.03
6. Clark Burckle (US) 2:09.11
7. Ryo Tateishi (Japan) 2:09.13
8. Brenton Rickard (Australia) 2:09.31