Following on from her blistering win in the 100 on Thursday, Kromowidjojo exploded off the blocks and charged through the single-lap race to win the gold and complete a sprint double in a time of 24.05 seconds, a new Olympic record.
Aliaksandra Herasimenia of Belarus, the silver medallist behind Kromowidjojo in the 100, took the silver in 24.28.
Marleen Veldhuis of the Netherlands grabbed the bronze in 24.39. Germany's Britta Steffen, the defending Olympic champion and world record holder, was fourth.
Kromowidjojo became the first Dutchwoman to win both freestyle sprints since Inge de Bruijn at Sydney in 2000.
It is a double disappointment for Southport-born Halsall, however, after she finished sixth in the 100m freestyle final on Thursday.
And the tearful Halsall – making her second Games appearance – was left devastated feeling like she let the Olympic Aquatics Centre capacity crowd down.
“I just want to say that the support that we’ve had this week has been unbelievable and the crowd have been unbelievable and I’m just a bit disappointed that I haven’t been unbelievable this week,” said the seven-time Commonwealth Games medallist.
“Things are sent to try us and we’re British and when things are sent to try the British people we come back stronger.”