The 21-year-old Belgian international, who has sparkled in his three seasons with Atletico, will be his country's first-choice at the World Cup in Brazil in June.
"My agent is talking to Chelsea because ultimately they are the only party with whom a meaningful discussion can be conducted," Courtois told the Belgian magazine Knack.
"We have an agreement to meet (manager) Jose Mourinho in the coming weeks ... to make a firm decision."
Asked if Courtois felt he was a better goalkeeper than Chelsea's long standing first-choice Petr Cech, he replied: "That I would never claim but with my current form I'm going nowhere where I have to be the second-choice.
"I think I'm no longer a player who you fetch to put on the bench. I can see where I want my future to go but I don't have the last word.
"It is the boss who decides in the end," added Courtois, referring to Mourinho.
The Belgian's contract at Chelsea runs until 2016.