Jackson, who won the bronze medal in the 400m freestyle at the Beijing Olympics in 2008, also broke the world record in qualifying for the 2009 world championships, where she won the silver medal.
The British record holder in both the 200m and 400m freestyle also picked up the silver in the 800m and the bronze in the 4 x 200m relay at the 2009 championships.
The Loughborough swimmer made her Olympic debut in Athens 2004 as a 17-year-old, before making her international breakthrough in 2006, winning silver medals at both the European Championships and Commonwealth Games.
“I feel so lucky to have been able to compete to an international for so many years and to have been to three Olympic Games,” Jackson said. “I would like to thank everyone who has supported me along the way.
“I have been fortunate to have some great sponsors who stuck with me through all the ups and downs. And British Swimming, coaches and the support team have been awesome.
“I’m now looking at new opportunities to start a swim academy and begin a brand new career in events.”
British Swimming national performance director Michael Scott moved to praise Jackson for her achievements and dedication to the sport.
“To be a three-time Olympian, an Olympic, world, European and Commonwealth medallist, and to have set a world record over 400m Freestyle in 2009 are all outstanding achievements," Scott said.
“On behalf of all at British Swimming, I would like to wish Jo all the best in her new endeavours.”