Flamboyant South African-born batsman Pietersen is in international exile following his much-publicised fall-out with team-mates, including former captain Andrew Strauss.
England team director Hugh Morris said "as there are still issues to be resolved, Kevin (Pietersen) has not been considered for selection for the India tour".
Pietersen has been in talks with England over his future, which was in doubt prior to the controversy last month after he quit limited-overs internationals before backtracking.
In a statement issued after the squad announcement, Pietersen's representatives said he was "disappointed" to be left out.
He also apologised for his part in the row but denied texting tactical hints to friends in the South Africa team, a charge widely levelled at him in the media.
"Pietersen has met with - and apologised to - Andrew Strauss," the statement said. "He has also met with Alastair Cook to stress his commitment to England and met with ECB board members, including face-to-face meetings with Hugh Morris, David Collier and Andy Flower, prior to his departure to Sri Lanka.
"At all times, Pietersen had wished his dealings with the ECB to remain private so as not to inflame an already difficult situation.
"His recent silence was not an admission of any wrongdoing; he wanted to explain and apologise to the ECB for the messages exchanged with members of the South African team.
"He has also made absolutely clear both to the ECB and the England team that - despite unsubstantiated allegations to the contrary and repeated media speculation - he did NOT offer ANY tactical advice to the South Africans. Pietersen remains available for England."
Back to the team, and uncapped batsmen Joe Root and Nick Compton were rewarded for their fine form with call-ups.
Root, 21, has opened for Yorkshire with an average of 43.41 but has been selected for his natural talent.
The 29-year-old Compton - grandson for former England cricketer and Arsenal footballer Denis Compton - was the top-scoring England batsman with an average of 99 for Somerset last season.
They effectively replace Strauss and Pietersen, with Essex's Ravi Bopara and Nottinghamshire's James Taylor both missing out.
Yorkshire's Jonny Bairstow will act as reserve wicketkeeper to Matt Prior even though he has not played in that position for England.
England will fly out to India at the end of October. The series involves four Tests, two Twenty20 and five one-day matches and will finish on January 27 2013.
England squad for India tour: Alastair Cook (Essex, captain); James Anderson (Lancashire), Jonny Bairstow (Yorkshire), Ian Bell (Warwickshire), Tim Bresnan (Yorkshire), Stuart Broad (Nottinghamshire), Nick Compton (Somerset), Steven Finn (Middlesex), Graham Onions (Durham), Eoin Morgan (Middlesex), Monty Panesar (Sussex), Samit Patel (Nottinghamshire), Matt Prior (Sussex, wicketkeeper), Joe Root (Yorkshire), Graeme Swann (Nottinghamshire), Jonathan Trott (Warwickshire).