The 30-year-old, who cost Roma six million euros when he left Ajax in 2011, has lost his place to Uruguayan Mauro Goicoechea and stressed his determination to seal a move to the Barclays Premier League before Thursday's transfer deadline.
The Holland international is represented by the Sport Promotion Consultancy, who claim an agreement was in place between Roma and Fulham for the goalkeeper to spend the rest of the season on loan at Craven Cottage.
Stekelenburg also said he was flying to London when his agent Rob Jansen informed him the move was off because Roma could not agree terms with Fiorentina's Emiliano Viviano.
The keeper told sportpromotion.nl: "This feels like a major setback in many ways. I was really looking forward to getting started at Fulham.
"It is a great club and it would be an understatement to say the league is great too. It is a blow and I will need time to process it."
The former Ajax man has publicly voiced his frustration at losing his place to Goicoechea but refused to hold Roma accountable for the events of deadline day.
"I can't really blame anyone in this situation," he added. "Roma made it clear from the outset that they would only sell me if they could bring in an adequate substitute.
"My agent Rob Jansen and I were informed that the clubs were in agreement with each other. We were there in person to meet Fulham so the wait was purely over my replacement in Rome. But they didn't find one and that's the reality.
"My first challenge is getting my place back at Roma, then we'll see how things stand in the summer."