Rafael was included in coach Mano Menezes' squad for four friendlies taking place this month and next, the Brazilian Football Confederation said.
His inclusion brings to 18 the number of players in the 23-man squad within the under-23 age limit for the London Olympic Games, where Brazil will attempt to win the soccer gold medal for the first time.
Daniel Alves fractured his right collar bone during training with Barcelona on Wednesday and will be out of action for eight weeks.
The CBF said Menezes would be in Munich on Saturday for the Champions League final between Bayern Munich and Chelsea, on his way to Hamburg where his Brazil players will assemble for the friendly against Denmark on May 26.
Brazil also meet the United States in Washington on May 30, Mexico in Dallas on June 3 and Argentina in New Jersey on June 9.