Robson is the youngest member of the Great Britain's tennis squad at 18, and already had a place in the women's doubles alongside Heather Watson. They will play their first match on Saturday against fifth seeds Angelique Kerber and Sabine Lisicki of Germany.
The duo lost in the first round at Wimbledon this year but Robson has made a Grand Slam quarter-final in women's doubles before, at the Australian Open in 2010.
Robson, who shot to fame when she won the girls' singles title at Wimbledon in 2008, will face Lucie Safarova of the Czech Republic in the first round.
It also means Great Britain - who had no representatives in Beijing - will have four women in the women's singles draw.
British number one Heather Watson takes on Spain’s Silvia Soler Espinosa, Anna Keothavong has a tough draw against former world number one Caroline Wozniacki while Elena Baltacha will face Hungary's Agnes Szavay, having lost their only previous encounter.