Adriaanse was in the squad for the recent Rugby Championship matches against Argentina, Australia and New Zealand but has yet to win a cap.
"Losing a player with Jannie's experience and ability is a big setback but we're lucky to have someone like Lourens to step in," coach Heyneke Meyer said in a statement.
"He's been part of the squad for almost the entire test season and was one of the unlucky players to miss out on initial selection."
The 30-year-old Du Plessis, who has won 51 caps, was ruled out because of a chronic shoulder injury and a broken hand.
South Africa meet Wales on Nov. 9 before visiting Scotland eight days later and France on Nov. 23.