A first half try from centre Tim Nanai-Williams and four penalties from the boot of fullback Gareth Anscombe proved sufficient for the win, which firmed up the host's position atop the New Zealand conference.
The Highlanders, who started the season with high hopes of going deep into the competition, had a converted try from Aaron Smith in the first half but were unable to add to that score and fell to their fourth straight defeat.
The Chiefs were forced to endure a breathless first half assault from the visitors but took an 10-0 lead against the run of play courtesy of an early Anscombe penalty and the eighth-minute try from centre Nanai-Williams.
The try came from a Highlanders attack with Nanai-Williams showing good hands to scoop the ball up from his bootlaces after lock Josh Bekhuis's fumble before turning on the afterburners to race 55 metres to score.
The Highlanders continued to attack with ferocity and earned their reward in the 20th minute when, after a period of tryline pressure, scrumhalf Smith scooted down the blindside from a five-metre scrum.
Their attacking intent was blunted only slightly by the yellow card shown to flanker Jarrad Hoeata for a high tackle on Aaron Cruden three minutes later but the Chiefs held their ground to take a 13-7 lead into the break.
It took 21 minutes for the second half to produce a score when Anscombe landed his third penalty, although Chiefs centre Andrew Horrell had come up only centimetres short of scoring his team's second try five minutes earlier.
Anscombe added his fourth penalty after 69 minutes when the Highlanders were penalised at the scrum and the Chiefs continued to pounce on every Highlanders error.
The Highlanders continued to run the ball at every opportunity but prop Chris King, who like Chiefs skipper Liam Messam was playing his 100th Super Rugby match, blew their best chance of a score when he charged for the line with an overlap outside him four minutes from time.