Cockerill was furious that Small sin-binned only one of Gloucester's forwards, tight head Shaun Knight, for offences at the scrum where Leicester were completely dominant.
He said: "We try to be really professional and then we have to deal with that. It's just not good enough. It has got to end, enough is enough."
He said he would ask Ed Morrison, the RFU's head of elite referee development, to look at a video of the match and insisted that Leicester did not get their just reward for dominating the scrums.
Cockerill, a former Leicester and England hooker, added: "I am lost for words. I have spent 30 years in the middle of scrums. I coach it every day.
"He (Small) needs to look at it and see his faults and try and improve. That's the whole point of coaching, whether you are a referee or a rugby coach. Today's points (for the win) are great, you have to win these games. If you get beaten I don't mind, but I want the rugby to decide, not the bloke in the middle making poor decisions.
"They need to educate them and Ed Morrison and Rob Andrew (RFU professional rugby director) need to make sure they do that. And if they don't do it right they don't get games, same as our blokes."
Cockerill said: "I'm disappointed. We get two blokes in the bin for breakdown offences and they get penalised 10 times in the scrum, get destroyed for most of the game and get one bloke in the bin."
Gloucester director of rugby Nigel Davies disagreed with Cockerill but admitted his side got beaten at the scrum time and that the result was fair.
He said: "It was a hard-fought game. We led for large parts, which is testimony to how they work hard for each other. If we are honest we were second best at the set piece. It was probably a fair result although we could have snuck it at the end."