The 25-year-old former Scotland age-group international follows Al Kellock, Tom Ryder, Tommy Seymour, Peter Murchie and fellow front-row Mike Cusack in committing to Glasgow.
MacArthur said: "I'm really pleased to have signed this new deal and commit to the club. It's great playing my rugby here and it's great to be part of this squad."
He added: "It's about all of us working together and getting success with this team.
"We are all pushing each other to get better as players and I'm certainly no different.
"There is terrific competition for the number two shirt with Dougie (Hall) and Fin (Gillies) but it's about making the team as strong as it can be.
"I know I have to keep working hard on my game, keep looking at ways to improve if I'm to keep challenging for my place in the starting line-up."