Robshaw has been retained after leading England to a record 38-21 victory over New Zealand at Twickenham on December 1 and will fill the post for a second successive championship.
"There are other leaders in the squad that Stuart could have turned to so I am really honoured. I am really pleased to be asked again," Robshaw, who was won 12 caps, said in the statement.
Northampton forwards Dylan Hartley and Tom Wood are viewed as potential captains, but coach Stuart Lancaster views 26-year-old Harlequins openside Robshaw as the outstanding candidate.
"We have a number of leaders and I know they will all take this team forward with Chris as we look to kick on from that result," said Lancaster.
England's Six Nations campaign begins on February 2 against Scotland at Twickenham.