Tretiakov held a lead of 0.09seconds over Dukurs, who has won the world title for the past two years running, at the halfway stage in St Moritz and proceeded to widen the gap on run three.
The 27-year-old, the last man apart from Dukurs to win the overall World Cup title back in 2009, posted 1:08.35minutes for a cushion of 0.46 over his Latvian rival.
However Dukurs hasn't lost just two races over the past two seasons for nothing and responded to falling behind to Tretiakov by clocking the quickest time of any of the runs last time out.
Dukurs posted 1:07.80 to take the lead with just Tretiakov to go with the Russian losing time all the way down his final run in Switzerland but coming home to take gold by just 0.03.
In a sport where hundredths of a second usually split the top sliders, Tretiakov and Dukurs were clear ahead of the rest of the field with another Russian Sergei Chudinov finishing third.
Chudinov was 2.27 behind teammate Tretiakov and 0.39 in front of Canadian Eric Neilson with Germany's Frank Rommel occupying fifth another 0.18 further adrift.
Meanwhile Dominic Parsons overtook 2008 world champion Kristan Bromley to finish as the highest Brit in ninth on his World Championship debut in St Moritz.
Parsons, 12th at the halfway stage, moved up to tenth after the third run as Bromley fell from eighth to ninth and he progressed again with his final outing.
Parsons clocked 1:08.98 to Bromley's 1:09.19 as they finished ninth and tenth respectively with the third Brit in the field Ed Smith placing 15th.