Kromowidjojo, Olympic champion at 50 and 100 freestyle at last year's London Games, clocked a time of 24.05 seconds.
Cate Campbell of Australia, who won gold in the 100 freestyle on Friday, took silver in 24.14 and Briton Halsall claimed the bronze in 24.30, her nation's first medal of the championships.
“A medal is nice but I wanted the gold so it’s a little bittersweet really,” said Halsall, who won her first World medal with 100m Freestyle silver in 2009.
“I knew it was really close right at the end. I’m happy to be on the podium but I really wanted to win it.
“I’ve been getting better and better to that 15m mark and I’ve been really been working on my start with James [Gibson, Halsall’s coach].
“My start has been coming down and down this season. I knew Ranomi next to me is a great starter so I just used her but I was spinning by the end.”
Elsewhere, Yuliya Efimova of Russia won gold in the women's 50 metres breaststroke.
Efimova, silver medallist at the last edition in Shanghai two years ago and champion in Rome in 2009, clocked a time of 29.52 seconds.
World record holder Ruta Meilutyte of Lithuania took silver in 29.59 and American defending champion Jessica Hardy took bronze in 29.80.
Camille Lacourt of France won gold in the men's 50 metres backstroke, a non-Olympic event.
Lacourt, silver medallist at the last championships in Shanghai two years ago, clocked a time of 24.42 seconds, with compatriot Jeremy Stravius and American Matt Grevers tying for second in 24.54.
Japanese teenager Daiya Seto won gold in the men's 400 metres individual medley.
The 19-year-old clocked a time of four minutes 8.69 seconds, with American Chase Kalisz, also 19, taking silver in 4:09.22 and Thiago Pereira of Brazil bronze in 4:09.48.
China's Sun Yang won a second consecutive world championship gold in the men's 1,500 metres freestyle to complete a rare treble of distance titles.
The Olympic champion and world record holder clocked a time of 14 minutes 41.15 seconds at the hilltop pool in Barcelona, matching American teenager Katie Ledecky in winning 400, 800 and 1,500 freestyle titles in the Catalan capital.
The towering 22-year-old Sun is only the second man to achieve the feat at a world championships after Australian Grant Hackett at the 2005 edition in Montreal.
Ryan Cochrane of Canada repeated his second-place finishes at the last two world championships after touching in a time of 14:42.48, and Italian teenager Gregorio Paltrinieri was third in 14:45.37.
Katinka Hosszu of Hungary won gold in the women's 400 metres individual medley to follow up on her triumph over 200 metres earlier in the week.
Hosszu clocked four minutes 30.41 seconds to reclaim the title she won in 2009, with Mireia Belmonte Garcia of Spain delighting the home fans by taking silver in 4:31.21.
Defending champion Elizabeth Beisel of the United States claimed the bronze in 4:31.69, while Ye Shiwen of China, the Olympic champion and world record holder, could only manage seventh in 4:38.51. Britain's Hannah Miley came fifth.
“I'm fifth again but it is faster than what I did at the Olympics which I can’t complain about,” said Miley.
“It’s not the result that everybody wants and I hate disappointing people and it’s a disappointment for me as well to come away without a medal.
“The time I did in Shanghai wouldn’t have won a medal this time round. The sport of swimming is moving on rapidly so I’ve got to do something to address that moving into my short course season.
“Obviously I’ll be wanting to make that improvement in the long course pool in the years leading up to Rio.”