The 25-year-old, who won Olympic 200m breaststroke silver at London 2012 last summer, finished as the runner-up on two occasions at the third World Cup leg in Russia.
That came in the 100m and 200m breaststrokes with Jamieson going one better in the latter to take a dominant victory as the World Cup tour moved to Dubai.
Leading the qualifiers, he claimed gold by almost two seconds in a time of 2:06.68minutes while Fran Halsall narrowly missed out on a podium finish in the 50m freestyle.
She was 0.02seconds off Jeanette Ottesen for fourth place while Georgia Davies was 0.05 shy of a medal in the 50m backstroke as Daryna Zevina and Katinka Hosszu shared bronze.
Elsewhere Sophie Allen, a two-time silver medallist from the Moscow World Cup herself, was sixth in the 100m breaststroke while Liam Tancock was eighth in the 100m backstroke.