Payne, reigning world champion, was automatically selected thanks to her fourth place finish at the London 2012 games.
Dan Fogg also made the cut having finished fifth in the Olympics.
The pair are joined by Jack Burnell - a team-mate of Fogg at Loughborough - and qualifier Danielle Huskisson.
British Swimming head coach Bill Furniss said: “We have a good mix of experience and youth on the team for the World Championships this year.
“British Swimming has a strong tradition in this event and Jack and Danielle will learn a lot from both Keri-Anne and Dan and also from the competition itself, which is important at the start of the next Olympic cycle."