With Sheffield Wednesday failing to win at Colchester - that match finished 1-1 - the narrow margin was sufficient to ensure Addicks' place in the Championship next season.
It was a blow to Carlisle's play-off hopes as they were the better side in the first half, although Charlton finished strongly and Adam Collin twice brilliantly prevented Yann Kermogant from adding to the visitors' lone goal.
The only thing lacking in a first half full of good football from both sides was a goal although Addicks' Dany N'Guessan missed an opportunity in the 17th minute, blasting wildly over the bar.
Carlisle gave every bit as good as they got against a pacy, powerful Charlton side and their best chance in the first 45 minutes fell to on-loan Sunderland striker Jordan Cook .However, Cook was unable to keep his composure and pulled his shot well wide from a promising position.
The woodwork saved Charlton in the 54th minute when Noble beat keeper Ben Hamer from just inside the area after Jon Paul McGovern had cleverly dummied Cook's cross, the shot coming back off the left hand post.
Collin rescued Carlisle when Wright-Phillips sprang the offside trap but, with a clear run on goal, failed to beat the advancing keeper.
However, Wright-Phillips was on hand to give Charlton a 76th-minute lead, turning the ball in from close range after Carlisle failed to clear John Jackson's right-wing corner.
Sheffield Wednesday’s 1-1 draw at Colchester guaranteed the Addicks promotion with former Addick Miguel Llera cancelling out Ian Henderson’s early opener for the U's.
Sheffield United came from behind to beat Leyton Orient 3-1 to strengthen their grip on second place. Kevin Lisbie put the visitors in front, but goals from Lee Williamson, Michael Doyle and Ched Evans gave the Blades their sixth straight win, with the O's having Ryan Dickson sent off at 2-1.
MK Dons consolidated their place in the play-offs with a 3-0 win at Scunthorpe United, goals from Dean Bowditch, Daniel Powell and Shaun Williams doing the damage.
Huddersfield Town slipped behind Dons with a 1-0 defeat at mid-table Preston North End, Chris Robertson netting early in the second half for the hosts.
Notts County maintained their grip on the final play-off place with a hard-fought 0-0 draw at rivals Brentford. Jeff Hughes rattled the bar for the visitors just before the break, but that was the closest Keith Curle's side came to breaking the deadlock.
Stevenage FC kept themselves in with a chance of a play-off place with a thumping 6-0 win at Yeovil Town. Luke Freeman opened and closed the scoring, sandwiching strikes from Patrick Agyemang, Jon Ashton, Jamaal Lascelles and Mark Roberts.
Andy Robinson’s goal gave Tranmere Rovers a 1-0 win at Walsall. The winger struck in the 62nd minute to put Tranmere 11th and leave Walsall seven points above the drop zone.
Bury all-but secured League One survival after a 1-0 win over Bournemouth. Mike Grella claimed the only goal of the game as the Shakers moved nine points clear of the relegation zone with just three games to play.
Chesterfield striker Jordan Bowery threw his side a relegation lifeline as his second-half header clinched a 2-1 win at Hartlepool. Substitute Danny Whitaker had cancelled out Gary Liddle’s first-half opener 11 minutes earlier.
Oldham Athletic kept their heads above water with a dramatic 2-2 draw at relegation-threatened Wycombe Wanderers. The Latics took the lead through Nuno Morais’s 14th-minute goal, but the Chairboys went ahead thanks to Stuart Beavon and Joel Grant, the second coming with 12 minutes left. But Robbie Simpson’s injury-time penalty gave the visitors a point, leaving Wycombe four points above the drop zone.
And in a thrilling bottom of the table clash, Rochdale came from two goals down to grab a 3-2 win at home to Exeter and preserve their League One status for at least another week. After goals from Nicky Adams and Joe Thompson had hauled Dale back from 2-0 down with 11 minutes to go, Jason Kennedy steered home an 88th-minute winner. Daniel Nardiello had scored a penalty and created a goal for Liam Sercombe.