The 29-year-old, who had a spell at The Valley in 2007/08, has agreed a deal until the end of the season.
Jackson limped off towards the end of Saturday's 1-1 draw at Scunthorpe with an ankle injury and will be assessed ahead of kick-off.
Manager Chris Powell has also signed striker Dany N'Guessan on loan from Millwall until the end of the season, and he could fill in on the wing if Jackson misses out.
Powell could make further changes after three games without a win, with fit-again winger Danny Green (shoulder) pushing for a return to the starting line-up.
Jason Euell is back from a loan spell with AFC Wimbledon but fellow striker Danny Haynes remains on the sidelines with a hamstring problem and will be out for another couple of weeks.
Yeovil will have Middlesbrough duo Jonathan Grounds and Jonathan Franks available at Charlton after extending their loan spells at Huish Park until the end of the campaign.
The pair have settled in well since their arrival in late February and Grounds has said he would be interested in staying even longer as his contract expires this summer.
Former Chelsea midfielder Michael Woods made his debut for the Glovers from the bench in the weekend victory over Walsall but has been without first-team football for a while now and may not be thrown in for a start yet.
Another loanee, Dean Parrett, had to settle for a place on the bench against the Saddlers but came on with the Glovers 1-0 down and was a part of their revival.